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It has become increasingly clear that children are less frequently affected by severe COVID than adults. This review will outline what we know so far about this new syndrome and what it means for us as clinicians. Kawasaki disease KD is a vasculitis of childhood characterized by a prolonged fever in addition to some characteristic changes.

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It causes inflammation swelling throughout the body which is one way your immune system fights off infection, injury and disease. These are mostly young people in adolescence, but children can get PIMS too. As PIMS is a new condition, we are learning about it all the time — you ts pim helping us to understand more so we can diagnose and treat other children and young people better in the future. Even though it is a new condition, doctors have already worked out a lot about it — we know it is caused by your immune system which fights of the virus but then over-reacts to affect other parts of your body. The doctors need to rule out other more common conditions that cause similar symptoms — this includes things like Kawasaki Disease, Sepsis and Toxic Shock Syndrome.

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The epidemiology, particularly a delay in timing between peak SARS-COV-2 infection in the community and PIMS-TS cases in several locations, as well as the timing of infection and clinical presentation in individual patients, suggests that this condition may be due to a delayed immune-mediated phenomenon triggered by the virus. Kawasaki disease KD is a well described but uncommon disease that predominantly affects children under 5 years of age but also occurs in older children.

What causes pims?

This inflammation can damage blood vessels, particularly the coronary arteries. TSS is an infrequent manifestation of streptococcal and staphylococcal infections in children and adults. In PIMS-TS, gastrointestinal symptoms particularly abdominal pain predominate and there appears to be a higher frequency of myocarditis and renal impairment.

However, other laboratory parameters appear more specific for PIMS-TS, including lymphopaenia and thrombocytopaenia on full blood count, and hyponatraemia. An elevated troponin may occur.

Echocardiography has also been reported to show myocardial dysfunction and coronary artery abnormalities in a ificant proportion of patients with PIMS-TS. Initial management of children presenting with features of PIMS-TS should include the usual assessment of with fever.

Differential diagnoses, including TSS, KD and bacterial sepsis, should be considered, investigated and treated according to local guidelines with the involvement of a senior clinician. Appropriate supportive management should be commenced and specific measures for hypotension or shock instituted urgently if required. Children with shock should be referred to intensive care as appropriate. Specialist advice on SARS-CoV-2 testing, including for current or infection, can be obtained from paediatric infectious diseases specialists and clinical microbiologists.

In addition to any clinically indicated investigations, the following tests are recommended for children with suspected PIMS-TS.

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While the majority of children reported to date have recovered, five deaths have been reported to date three in the USA and one each in the UK 9 and France 4, If s of KD do rise in the coming months, we are confident that our existing surveillance mechanisms will identify and report this. Clinicians must inform their local public health units of patients with probable and confirmed COVID as a matter of urgency, 15 which means that cases are well documented and aids in understanding the epidemiology of this emerging issue.

Please contact the PAEDS network to contribute surveillance data, and for support in data ts pim, by ing schn-paeds health.

Further information including a case definition for surveillance in Australia will be available on the PAEDS website in the near future. COVID generally is uncommon and typically an asymptomatic or mild disease in children.

We acknowledge that the National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance NCIRS is on the land of the traditional owners the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, the First Australians, and recognise their culture, history, diversity and their deep connection to the land. Together, through research and partnership, we aim ts pim move to a place of equity for all. NCIRS also acknowledges and pays respect to other Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nations from which our research, staff and community are drawn. Our website meets the criteria for credibility and content as defined by the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety.

Pims-ts, the new paediatric systemic inflammatory disease related to exposure to sars-cov-2 infection-"rheumatic fever" of the 21st century?

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Our people Our Strategic Plan — PIMS-TS shows similarities to Kawasaki disease and Toxic Shock Syndrome Kawasaki disease KD is a well described but uncommon disease that predominantly affects children under 5 years of age but also occurs in older children. After the acute illness serum for SARS-CoV-2 serology at 2—3 weeks after illness, using well-validated assay echocardiography assessing for myocardial function and coronary artery lesions at 4—6 weeks after illness The outcome of PIMS-TS is generally good. References Riphagen S et al. The Lancet.

Further cases of pims-ts likely in australia

ECDC: Stockholm; Diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki disease: a scientific statement for health professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation ;e Kawasaki-like multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children during the covid pandemic in Paris, France: prospective observational study. BMJ ;m Unpublished data - Lucas, Singh-Grewal, Burgner, et al.

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